Director of the United States Geological Survey
Director of the Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution
Died September 23, 1902 in Haven Colony, Brooklin, Maine
alongside his wife Emma Dean
|Modified original image from shockya.com|
|A mirror allows the gills to be photographed while illuminating the cap’s shadowed undersurface.|
The gills are the spore-bearing structure of the mushroom.
Imperceptible to the naked eye, the lawn beneath the cap was being showered by spores.
|A deadly poisonous Omphalotus illudens fruiting just down the street|
|Mushrooms are a pizza topping and a kind of fungal reproductive structure|
|Modified from mrskingsbioweb.com|
|Fungi are the principal decomposers of wood. Without fungal decay our forests |
would become huge stockpiles of wood. They also supply fresh nutrients to the soil
and vacate the landscape for more resistant, younger trees to grow.
Notice the white, fungal mycelium in the heartwood of the stump
and the bracket fungus on the bark of the rotting pine.
|The DNA of prokaryotic cells is located within a nucleoid region (left) and lacks a |
surrounding membrane. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus that is membrane-bound (right).
|Phylogenetic tree based on rRNA analysis|
|The three major phyla of fungi and the Imperfect fungi:|
Zygomycota (spores form from hyphal fusion as in black bread mold);
funguslike Imperfect fungi (sexual structures not identified as in Penicillium);
Ascomycota (form spores in sacs as in yeast and truffles);
Basidiomycota (spores form in the basidium of mushrooms);
|Colored SEM of the fungal hyphae of Penicillium sp.|
Used with permission from psmicrographs.co.uk
|Root-like, white mycelial strands called rhizomorphs are on this overturned rotting log.|
|Modified from flora-balance.com|
|A gilled mushroom of Phylum Basidiomycota. Other members have teeth and tiny tubes on the basidium.|
|We’re looking upward (into a mirror) at the spectacular basidium of a mushroom of phylum Basidiomycota. |
Its radiating gills are the spore-producing structures.
|A Buller's drop catapults the spore from the hilar appendage|
Modified from Carlile & Watkinson, (1994)
|A spore print is helpful in identifying mushrooms based on spore color, brown in this case.|
Notice the basidium lining the gills on the cap’s underside, the reproductive structure of the mushroom.
|Left overnight, the basidium showers the paper with billions of spores that mimic the structure |
of the mushroom's gills. This is an infinitesimally small fraction of what becomes airborne.
|A myriad of shapes of spores facilitate their catapultation through the air.|
From Ernst Haeckel’s "Kunstformen der Natur" and WikiMedia Commons
|From the Diversity of Fungi by Mark Steinmetz and ca.bdol.glencoe.com|
|This young mushroom, possibly a Pluteus, is just beginning to emerge.|
|These delicate bracket fungi Trichaptum abietinum are fruiting on a downed conifer.|
|This white, spherical puffball is precariously fruiting on a rotting branch.|
Its spores are produced within the fruitbody and are discharged when provoked.
|This common and highly recognizable red-capped mushroom of Genus Russula |
has skin that can be pulled off but is brittle when handled, a depressed cap and a striated margin.